Moscow Region

Senators by region

Alexander Dvoinykh Alexander Dvoinykh
Member of the Federation Council Committee on Agriculture and Food Policy and Environmental Management
Olga Zabralova Olga Zabralova
First Deputy Chair of the Federation Council Committee on Social Policy

Information

Regional flags and emblems

Moscow Region Moscow Region

Profile

Established 14 January 1929

State authorities of the Moscow region are located on the territory of the city of Moscow and the Moscow region in accordance with historical traditions

The Moscow Region is part of the Central Federal District

Area 44,300 sq km

Population 7,765,900 (2022)

Ethnic groups

(2010 National Census, %)

Russian – 92.92

Ukrainian – 1.79

Tatar – 1.08

Other – 4.21

Administrative divisions (2022)

City districts – 63

Geography and climate

The region is located in the central East European Plain, in the basin of the Volga, Oka, Klyazma and Moskva rivers. The terrain is mostly flat, with the Smolensk and Moscow uplands in the north and west, the Klin-Dmitrov ridge being the highest part (up to 285 m), and the marshy Meshchera lowland in the east.

The Moscow Region borders on the Tula, Kaluga, Smolensk, Tver, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Ryazan regions and Moscow.

There are more than 2,000 rivers with a total length of 10,000 km. The navigable Moscow Canal connects the Volga and Moskva rivers. The Mozhaiskoye, Ruzskoye, Istrinskoye, Klyazminskoye, Uchinskoye and other reservoirs were built on the Moscow River and the canal to regulate the runoff. There are over 350 large lakes with the water surface of 8,000 ha; the largest ones are the Trostenskoye, Senezhskoye, Svyatoye, and Velikoye. The main rivers are Oka, Moscow and Klyazma.

The climate is temperate continental. January temperatures average –5.2°C. July temperatures average 19,9°C.

The region is home to the Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Biosphere Reserve, the Zavidovsky Reserve, and Losiny Ostrov National Park.

Government

The legislative branch is represented by the Moscow Regional Duma, which is the permanent, supreme and only body of legislative authority in the region.

The Moscow Regional Duma has 50 deputies, with 25 of them running in single-member constituencies and the other 25 in the single electoral district, where winners are identified in proportion to the number of votes cast for lists of candidates nominated by electoral associations.

The current Moscow Regional Duma was elected in September 2021. Its term expires in September 2026.

The executive branch is the Government of the Moscow Region; there are also other central and territorial executive authorities.

The Governor of the Moscow Region is the region’s highest-ranking official, the head of the executive branch of the Moscow Region elected for five years by Russian citizens who permanently reside in the region. The term of office of the current incumbent expires in September 2023.

The Government of the Moscow Region is the top permanent executive authority and a collective body with general competence.

Economy and natural resources

The Moscow Region is a leader in terms of industrial output in the country. The region’s industry mostly uses imported raw materials and is based on a powerful research and technology infrastructure with highly skilled personnel.

Industrial output includes machine-building and metalworking products, construction materials, consumer goods, thermal and fuel equipment (Podolsk Machine-Building Factory), nuclear fuel (MSZ Elemash affiliated with the TVEL Fuel Company), space and missile technology (notably, Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, Lavochkin Research and Production Association, Tactical Missiles Corporation (KTRV), and Soyuz Federal Centre for Dual-Use Technologies, which produces solid propellants), metro carriages (Metrowagonmash), electric locomotives (Demikhovo Machine-Building Plant), buses (Likino Bus Plant), agriculture machinery, excavators and cranes (Lyubertsy, Dmitrov and Balashikha), high-grade steel (Elektrostal), light industry equipment (Kolomna, Klimovsk, Podolsk, etc.), and optical instruments (Krasnogorsky Zavod (KMZ Zenit) and Lytkarino Optical Glass Factory).

There are many defence companies in the region, notably, National Helicopter Centre Mil and Kamov (NHC), Research & Development Production Enterprise Zvezda, State Research Institute of Aviation System GosNIIAS, and Phazotron-NIIR.

The Moscow Region has intensive, highly developed agriculture, predominantly urban farming. Grains account for a significant part of local crop production (wheat, barley, oats, rye), followed by potatoes, greenhouse vegetables and horticulture. Livestock farming includes dairy and beef, pork, and poultry production.

The Moscow Region has intensive, highly developed agriculture, predominantly urban farming. It accounts for about 2% of the regional GDP. Grains account for a significant part of the local crop production (wheat, barley, oats, rye), followed by potatoes, greenhouse vegetables and horticulture. Local farms also grow flowers and mushrooms (champignons, etc.). Livestock farming is represented by dairy and beef, pork, and poultry production. Apart from meat, livestock farms implement selective breeding programmes. The region holds one of the leading positions in Russia for the production of meat and by-products, as well as poultry meat.

Culture and tourism

The Moscow Region is one of the centres of Russian Orthodoxy and Russian culture. There are about 6,000 landmarks of cultural heritage of both federal and regional level. Moscow manors, museums, monasteries and churches are part of Russia’s cultural heritage. The Trinity Lavra of St Sergius has been one of the most revered shrines for seven centuries and an important centre of spiritual enlightenment and culture. The town of Istra emerged as a settlement around the grandiose New Jerusalem Monastery of Resurrection, founded in the 17th century by Patriarch Nikon in likeness of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Palestine. The monastery is a unique piece of 17th century architecture. The Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery in Zvenigorod, a major tourist landmark and center of pilgrimage, was founded in 1398 on the Storozh Mountain, on the tall bank of the Moskva River, as a defensive fortification of the Moscow Principality.

Many ancient cities with old kremlins (castles and fortresses) have been well preserved to this day, for example Kolomna, Zaraisk, and Dmitrov. The Kolomna Kremlin, built in 1525–1531, was one of the largest and strongest fortresses at the time. The Zaraisk Kremlin is a history, architecture, art and archaeology museum and the only 16th-century kremlin in the Moscow Region that has been completely preserved.

The main areas of tourism development in the region are cultural and educational, pilgrimage, research, event, health, environmental and agricultural tourism.

Many military historical memorials are concentrated in the Moscow Region; some of them annually host historical festivals and military reenactments, such as the international Borodino Day festival at the State Borodino War and History Museum Reserve in Borodino; Dushonovsky Maneuvers historical festival in the Shchyolkovo District; the Battle of Molody festival in the Chekhov District, and the military patriotic festival and reenactment of the Vokhna River Battles of the 1812 Patriotic War in the Pavlovo-Posad District, and others.